MODERNIZATION AS A PLACE OF GROWTH COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Economy

The article substantiates the necessity of accelerated development nt of agricultural production as one of the key components of the national economy. The analysis of income and outcome, as well as the comparison of the basic types of agricultural equipment with the European countries, was carried out. The conducted analysis revealed the low level of technical equipment in agriculture and the need to modernize the material and technical basis. The external and internal factors Restraining modernization processes, the priority directions of the development and updating of the material and technical basis of the Russian agriculture are presented.

Keywords: agriculture, modernization, competitiveness, technical and technological basis, provision of agricultural machinery.

The modern economic situation, provoked by the sanctions struggle, focuses on the need for the development of national production. Due to the fact that agriculture is a source of consumption of products from eighty industries and provides raw materials and products to sixty other industries, it makes sense to concentrate more attention on creating competitive agricultural production as the basis for the development of the entire economy of the country [1]. And, consequently, it is the formation of competitive advantages in agricultural producers that can strengthen their position in foreign and domestic markets, and increase the country’s self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs.

The solution to the problem of competitiveness, as well as the need to ensure food security of the country, is hidden in creating the necessary (innovation-oriented ) technical and technological base [2]which will serve as the foundation for the production of agricultural products induction [3] with lower cost and higher quality. The technical and technological base of agriculture, which is an innovative basis for agricultural production, is a key socially oriented production system that determines and regulates the quantity, volumes and economic characteristics of agricultural products produced. At the same time, modernization of the technical component of agriculture should include not only the renewal and reproduction of the technical base, but also the introduction of innovative, resource-saving technologies based on modern machinery and equipment. At the same time, modernization of production is constrained by external, objective factors, among which the most significant is the limited access to financial sources in foreign markets, as well as internal ones. Among the circumstances caused by the shortcomings of the existing economic model of the country’s development, the isolation of the production process from scientific developments occupies a special place [4]. So, in agriculture of Russia about 4% of all scientific developments are applied, however in other, developed countries, these values ​​reach 50%. Now, according to experts, modern (meeting the requirements of innovation) technology and technology have about 1.5% of large agricultural enterprises and less than 0.5% of farms. Practical impact of research of Russian specialists is extremely low – up to 60% of annual developments remain unclaimed. There is no effective interaction between agricultural producers and science, which leads to increased dependence on the supply of foreign varieties of seeds and pedigree cattle [5]. At the same time, for the implementation of a set of agricultural technological measures in a timely manner and with minimal losses, agricultural commodity producers must be provided with the necessary quantity of agricultural machinery and equipment that have modern technical characteristics. According to the estimates of many scientists, this technological-technological factor of production forms up to 30% of the crop. In turn, since 1992, the number of tractors, excluding tractors on which earthmoving, meliorative and other machines are mounted, is steadily declining. So in 1992 there were 1290.7 thousand units. tractors, and in 2016 their number decreased almost 5.8 times (to 223.4 thousand units). Even worse situation can be traced with grain-harvesting and forage harvesters whose number decreased in 6.3 and 9.1 times in the last 25 years, respectively. Parallel to this, the tendency of obsolescence and failure of technology is preserved [6][7]. For 2010-2016 years. The number of tractors decreased annually by an average of 11 thousand units, grain harvesters – by 1,5 thousand units, forage harvesters – by 0,7 thousand units. The supply of the main types of equipment in Russia is much lower than in other countries, which increases the load on 1 tractor or 1 combine, leads to increased wear and loss of crops. So in the EU countries, the supply of tractors per 1000 hectares of arable land reaches 85 units, and combine harvesters 11.5 units. per 1000 hectares of crops, in Belarus, these indicators reach values ​​of 9.3 and 5.0 units. respectively. In Russia, the availability of tractors and combine harvesters is at a lower level – more than 2 times less than in Belarus.

Of course, the reduction in the number of equipment is compensated to some extent by the appearance on farms of units having better technical characteristics with higher performance and power. However, according to some economists, in order to stop the retirement of the main types of agricultural machinery with a 10% write-off, it is necessary to purchase at least 47,0 thousand units annually. tractors, 13.0 thousand units. grain – and 2.0 thousand units.

The level of security and the pace of renewal of the fleet of agricultural machinery is one of the indicative indicators characterizing the support measures of agriculture by the state [8]. At the same time, the technical and technological modernization of agricultural production is not a system limited only to agriculture. That is, if the state investments in agricultural machinery, other branches of the agroindustrial complex, as well as agrarian science, are small, one should not expect an innovative breakthrough and bringing the efficiency of agro-industrial production to the required level. Nevertheless, despite such a complex and multifaceted dependence of many spheres of activity on each other, the modernization of the fleet of equipment [9] is still a key factor in the growth of agricultural production efficiency as part of the process of reproducing the technical base. Thus, the acquired equipment should not simply replace the old one, but should raise the technical potential, lower the resource intensity of production. In the context of external economic pressures, modernization is becoming a key factor in the growth of agricultural competitiveness.

Among the priorities for the development and updating of the material and technical base of Russian agriculture, it is necessary to note:

  • the development of high-performance machinery that would take into account the possibility of applying zonal- adaptive resource- cultivation and harvesting of crops
  • creation of technologies and methods of applying reinforcing and restoration the increase in the quality and quantity of trained engineering and technical personnel for agroproduction,
  • the decrease in the dependence of the Russian market of agricultural machinery on foreign producers [10].

Updating the technical and technological component of agricultural development is only part of the modernization process. The change in production technology and technical equipment does not remove the economic and environmental crises that accompany the development of the industry, which requires further research on theoretical approaches to economic modernization. In this regard, in order to develop the technical base of Russian agriculture, it is necessary to look for ways to increase the competitiveness of industries through the internal reserves of industries, the development of human resources and infrastructure.

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