ON THE QUESTION OF THE SYSTEMICITY OF THE MODERN FINANCIAL AND CREDIT INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

Economy

The financial and credit infrastructure of the agro-industrial complex is an integral part of the market economy system, which includes institutions that provide credit and financial services for the reproduction process. The main functions of the infrastructure are the transformation of savings into investments and the implementation of a mechanism to ensure the process of accumulation, mobilization and transfer of capital in order to increase it. Each element of the financial and credit infrastructure, carrying out its activities and functioning relatively independently, is an integral part of a unified system of financial institutions [1, С. 25].

The system of financial and credit infrastructure can be defined as the unity of four main elements: legislation regulating financial and credit relations , subjects of financial and credit infrastructure, instruments of financial and credit infrastructure, as well as the mechanism for administering financial and credit relations. [19659015] Legislative regulation of financial and credit provision of the agroindustrial complex is characterized by the presence of many normative legal acts.

Depending on the degree of influence on the formation and development of the agroindustrial complex, the regulatory framework can be divided:

  1. The laws of universal action, the content of which plays a crucial role in the functioning of the agro-industrial complex:

-Constitution of the Russian Federation

-Civil Code of the Russian Federation

  1. Laws regulating parallel institutions, affecting, including the functioning of agribusiness (19659015) – On the financial lease (19659015) – On the organization of insurance business in the Russian Federation
    1. Laws regulating the activity of agricultural enterprises

    – On the development of agriculture

    – On the federal target program “Sustainable development of rural areas for 2014-2017 and for the period until 2020”

    – On state regulation of agro-industrial production-On the state In the field of agricultural insurance and on amending the federal law “On the development of agriculture”, etc.

    Among the subjects of the financial and credit infrastructure are institutions involved in financing the agro-industrial complex, namely, the state, commercial banks, credit cooperatives , leasing and investment companies. Also, as institutions of financial and credit infrastructure, it is possible to single out agricultural enterprises both large and small agribusinesses that are consumers of financial services. Institutes of financial and credit infrastructure are insurance and audit companies that perform, respectively, reimbursing and controlling functions.

    Following the results of the All-Russian Agricultural Census, the number of agricultural producers of all categories as of 01.01.2017 is 23,698.6 thousand units, of which the largest number personal subsidiary plots 23,487 thousand units [2].

    As of 01/01/2018 the following institutions operating on the Russian market are engaged in financial and credit provision of the economy, at that Number of agro-industrial complex:

    Table 1 – The main participants of the financial market in the Russian Federation as of 01/01/2018 (units) [3]

    The main participants of the financial market Number
    Credit organizations 561
    Agricultural credit consumer cooperatives 927
    Leasing companies 214
    Insurance organizations 308
    Private investors (actively working in the stock market) 117,321

    Credit organizations give loans to agricultural producers for: Retenu agricultural machinery; construction, reconstruction and modernization of livestock complexes. Also, commercial banks are crediting seasonal work and investment lending. By the number of banks in the Russian Federation, out of 561 acting as of 01.01.2018, 11 banks are included in the list of systemically important ones, which account for more than 60% of the total assets of the Russian banking sector [4]. The activities of agricultural consumer cooperatives are aimed at lending to the implementation of current activities of representatives of small agribusiness. The agricultural consumer credit cooperative is defined as a voluntary association of citizens and (or) legal entities, participants of small and medium-sized agribusiness, operating on the basis of the funds contributed by them in order to provide mutual assistance to each other. The main functions of the agricultural credit cooperative can include: credit, savings, investment. The implementation of the credit function allows the agro-enterprises to attract the necessary funds for the implementation of current activities. The increase in the monetary value of members of the cooperative is ensured by the savings function. The investment function makes it possible to convert the money savings of shareholders into capital [5].

    Interaction between enterprises of the agro-industrial complex and leasing companies is carried out using such tools as lending for the purchase of specialized equipment. For agribusinesses, the advantage of leasing is that they receive not money, but means of production that allow them to renew and increase their capital base. [1945].

    The activity of agricultural producers is subject to the risks of loss (death) of agricultural products and animals under the influence of external factors environment. These risks are objects of agricultural insurance [7]. The agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation is represented not only by enterprises engaged in the production of agricultural products, but also by enterprises engaged in the preparation and processing of products, as well as by servicing the activities of agribusinesses [8].

    Federal, regional and municipal authorities exert influence on subjects of financial credit provision of agro-industrial complex. The main forms of impact are the budgetary financing of agriculture within the approved budgetary list, as well as through the financing of targeted programs [9]. The state support of the agro-industrial complex is carried out within the framework of the State Program for the Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Products, Raw Materials and Foodstuffs for 2013-2020 in the form of subsidies from the federal budget to the budgets of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the following areas [10]:

    1. agroindustrial complex;
    2. Stimulation of investment activity in the agro-industrial complex;
    3. Technical and technological modernization, innovative development;
    4. Development of agricultural land reclamation
    5. Sustainable development of rural areas.

    All elements of the financial and credit infrastructure system are interrelated and interdependent and interact in the following main areas:

    1. Establishment of the order of operation of enterprises of agro-industrial complex
    2. Establishment of the procedure for providing financial and credit resources to enterprises and organizations of the agro-industrial complex
    3. Development and implementation 19659058] The development and implementation of procedures for the implementation of the rights, duties and responsibilities of the subjects of the financial and credit infrastructure of the agro-industrial complex
    4. The use of various instruments within the framework of the existing financial and credit infrastructure.

    Interaction of all elements of the system of financial and credit infrastructure of the agro-industrial complex forms the financial basis for the development of agro-industrial products It also ensures the development of its material and technical base.

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